By Richard Henderson

The C&C 35

Bridging the Rake
Length overall: 34 feet 7 inches
Length on waterline: 27 feet 6 inches
Beam: 10 feet 7 inches
Draft: 5 feet 3 inches
Sail area: 575 square feet (MK I)
Displacement: 10,500 pounds (MK I)
Designer: Cuthbertson & Cassian
Year designed: 1969

     Back in the early 1970s, when the International Offshore Rule replaced the Cruising Club of America rule as the principal method of handicapping the larger boats racing on U.S. waters, there were not many boats that could successfully bridge the two rules. Almost overnight, many racing cruisers were made obsolete for competition by the rule change. The C & C 35, however, is one of the few hot CCA boats that was able to continue her winning ways for quite a while under the IOR.

     When Cuthbertson & Cassian designed this boat in 1969, they certainly knew that the IOR was coming, but rather than try to anticipate loopholes in the rule, they apparently decided to create a fast, wholesome racer that could sail to her rating under any reasonably fair handicap system. To the regret of many owners of old boats, the IOR turned out to be somewhat more of a development rule than a handicap rule, and thus any boat specifically designed to IOR parameters, had a distinct rating advantage. Nevertheless, the C&C 35 turned out to be such a fast boat that she could not be overly subdued by an unfavourable rating.

     The C&C 35, originally called the Redwing 35, is not the type of boat I would prefer for extended offshore cruising, because she is quite light, with an abbreviated fin keel and spade rudder. These characteristics produce quick motion with steering that may demand too much attention for shorthanded voyaging. Furthermore, the free-standing spade rudder is not as well protected as most rudders attached to skegs or keels; and the particular shape of the fin makes drying out (for bottom cleaning) and hauling (or slipping, as the British say) a difficult operation in boatyards that are off the beaten track and that do not have TraveLifts or large cranes. Nonetheless, the C & C 35 is great for racing, inshore cruising, and even coastal passages. Although lightly built, she is strong; her accommodations are comfortable; she is delightful to sail; and she will get you to your destination in a hurry. With this kind of boat, beating away from a lee shore in heavy weather should be no problem, and of course, a good turn of speed extends the cruising range when time is a limiting factor.

Although the original rig of the C&C 35 looks a bit short by today's standards, it is ample to drive the light hull exceedingly well in all conditions except perhaps in the lightest airs.

     I am very pleased that C & C Yachts of Ontario,Canada, has agreed to release this boat's lines for publication. It can be seen that she has quite a powerwerful hull with little deadrise but with some what rounded bilges. The large radius at the turn the bilge, together with the cutaway fin keel and lack of skeg, keep the wetted surface low, even though the underbody is fairly flat and beamy. The round bilge is also helpful to sea kindliness and hull rigidity. The hull is moderately wedge-shaped, but the ends are not extremely unbalanced. For reserve buoyancy and dryness, there is some flare forward. While there is no true bustle, the after sections are rather wide, and they are slightly V'd forward of the rudder in such a way as to deepen the hull profile and thus bring some volume aft. The buttocks are quite straight and easy, giving a hint of the boat's speed downwind in a fresh breeze.

Lines of the C&C 35 reveal her rather flat, beamy hull with well-rounded bilges. Note the deep, full sections abaft the keel which add some buoyancy to the stern and may move the quarter wave farther aft.

     As mentioned before, the keel shape adds to the difficulty of hauling on a marine railway, but in many ways it is a good shape for this boat. Because of the keel's considerable rake, it provides some fore-and-aft length for directional stability, and this may be desirable on a boat with no skeg. Furthermore, I like the slope to the leading edge, which serves as protection against fouling with seaweed, lobster pot lines, and the like. The all-metal, bolted-on fin does not allow space for tanks or even a small bilge water sump, but it is thin and thus reduces head resistance and assures that keel damage will be minimal in the event of a grounding on a hard bottom.

     The keel shape may not provide the lift of the high-aspect-ratio, so-called Peterson-type keels, but it does create minimal drag. C.A. Marchaj, the world-famous aero-hydrodynamicist, has written: "Theory says that very little side force is supplied by the area of keel behind the maximum draft and almost all the side force is produced by the part of the keel behind the leading edge. So the possible evolution of the keel proper would be toward the shark fin profile . . . ." The C & C 35's profile is close to the shark fin, and the raked trailing edge cuts away a lot of area that would be adding wetted surface without contributing much to side force.

The adequate accommodations of the original Redwing 35, later the C&C 35. About the only thing lacking is an oilskin locker, but this might be worked in between the quarter berth and companionway steps

     Notice that the plans show two rudders. The shallow aftermost rudder was the original design. It is interesting to follow the evolution of C&C rudders. The early rudders were scimitar-shaped spades, and apparently George Cuthbertson and the other designers at C & C had a theory that differed considerably from that of Bill Lapworth (of Cal boats) in regard to free-standing rudders. The Cal-type rudders are more balanced, and they have the greatest area up high, with the top fitting as tight as possible against the counter so the hull forms an end plate. The early C&C rudders, however, are not balanced, and the top after edge is considerably cut away. Presumably, the reason for this cutaway is to get the greatest amount of the blade into solid, less turbulent water and to get the rudder as far aft as possible without the danger of air injection, which could cause the rudder to ventilate. The newer type of C & C spade, however, is a deep, high-aspect-ratio type with a more constant fore-and-aft width. The change was made to improve steering on heavy-air spinnaker reaches when the boat sometimes had a tendency to broach. The greater rudder depth seems to help, and in my opinion, the more vertical axis gives better control when the boat is heeled.

The tall rig of the Mark II version of the C&C 35. Ballast has been added to compensate for the higher center of effor of the newer sail plan, and some additional freeboard has been added to compensate for the loss of freeboard caused by the extra ballast.

     Two sail plans are shown, the original short rig and a tall rig for the Mark II version drawn in 1973. The new rig increases the sail area from about 575 to 629 square feet, but ballast (and hull weight) has been increased to compensate for the higher center of effort of the tall plan; so the sail area-displacement ratio hasn't changed a great deal. In light-air conditions where there is more breeze aloft, of course, the taller rig is more advantageous, but from what I have seen, the original boat seems to be just as competitive in almost every other condition. For cruising shorthanded, I would prefer the smaller rig, which has ample sail area considering the boat's displacement of 10,500 pounds (for the Mark I hull).

     The helmsman's position is extremely far aft. This has advantages for racing, as it keeps the crew out of the helmsman's way; the skipper, who is usually at the helm, can see what his crew is doing; and the after location provides good visibility to leeward. There is a disadvantage for cruising in that the helmsman is far from the companionway and the protection of a dodger, but the rudder stock head is forward of the wheel pedestal, and therefore the emergency tiller can be rigged to put the helmsman farther forward. Incidentally, there is what appears to be a prominent dodger coaming (and cabin-top stiffener), but it is so far forward that the normal dodger will not cover much of the cockpit.

     The helmsman's well has a high coaming aft, and it should have holes or be partially cut away to meet ocean racing requirements for cockpit volume. I would prefer a bridge deck or higher companionway sill, but the sill is not unreasonably low for normal sailing. For heavy weather offshore, of course, a weather board is needed. Below decks, the C&C 35 is roomy and comfortable, with berths for five or six in a pinch. Many seamen prefer a transom-pilot berth arrangement to the dinette for offshore sailing, but this particular dinette is U-shaped, and it allows a couple of occupants to sit facing athwartships. Also, the outboard seat may be used as a single berth on the starboard tack without the need to lower the table. The original boats had a chart table and quarter berth on the port side with the galley to starboard, but the Mark II version has the chart table to starboard with the galley to port. The latter arrangement provides more room and security for the cook, but at some sacrifice to the size of the navigator's niche and the width of the quarter berth.

     I would definitely prefer a porthole in the head even though there is a deadlight in the cabin-top for light and a small ventilator for air. Both the head and galley sinks are located close to the boat's centerline so that they will not overflow during a knockdown with the outlet valves open. There are fine dressers, lockers, and drawers in the forward cabin, but at some sacrifice to bunk length. Ventilation below is not entirely adequate for southern waters; so I would add two Dorades on the cabin-top and a Dorade or removable vent on the foredeck.

     The C&C 35 is certainly light, but it was quite well built by Hinterhoeller in Ontario, Canada. Construction is fiberglass with considerable use of end-grain balsa core for rigidity and lightness. The workmanship in the bilge in way of the keel bolts is somewhat crude looking but strong. I would be sure that the ends of the transverse plywood floor timbers were well covered with epoxy or some other coating to guard against delamination. Also, plenty of bedding and sealer should be used where fittings go through the balsa core to assure there will be no rot.

Jack Quinn's C&C 35 Banshee, a boat the author had the pleasure of sailing on occasionally

     When Charlie Stein sold his Owens cutter, Snallygaster, he looked long and hard for a replacement boat. Charlie is one of the few successful racing skippers who believes in hanging on to the same boat for a good length of time. He finally decided on a C & C 35, and I don't think he has ever regretted the choice. He has won plenty of races in the new Snally, and he is still doing remarkably well with her, despite numerous rule changes. Undoubtedly, the greatest amount of publicity for Charlie came when he won a 150-mile sail training race competing against some so-called "tall ships," including the Pride of Baltimore, a full-size replica of a Baltimore clipper schooner. In the light headwinds that prevailed, of course, Snallygaster walked away from the big, rakish schooner. Any sailor would expect as much, but the press made a great fuss about the affair. It was almost as miraculous as David slaying Goliath. At any rate, the Pride is still a proud ship, but she gained a touch of humility from the speedy little C&C 35.